What exactly is stevia?
Stevia, also called Stevia rebaudiana, is a plant that is a member of the chrysanthemum family, a subgroup of the Asteraceae family (ragweed family). There’s a big difference between the stevia you buy at the grocery store and the stevia you may grow at home.
Stevia products found on grocery store shelves, such as Truvia and Stevia in the Raw, don’t contain whole stevia leaf. They’re made from a highly refined stevia leaf extract called rebaudioside A (Reb-A).
In fact, many stevia products have very little stevia in them at all. Reb-A is about 200 times sweeter than table sugar.
Sweeteners made with Reb-A are considered “novel sweeteners” because they’re blended with different sweeteners, such as erythritol (a sugar alcohol) and dextrose (glucose).
For example, Truvia is a blend of Reb-A and erythritol, and Stevia in The Raw is a blend of Reb-A and dextrose (packets) or maltodextrin (Bakers Bag).
Some stevia brands also contain natural flavors. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Trusted Source doesn’t object to the term “natural flavors” if the related ingredients have no added colors, artificial flavors, or synthetics.
Still, ingredients that fall under the “natural flavor” umbrella may be highly processed. Many argue that this means there’s nothing natural about them.
You can grow stevia plants at home and use the leaves to sweeten foods and beverages. Reb-A sweeteners are available in liquid, powder, and granulated forms. For purposes of this article, “stevia” refers to Reb-A products.
Stevia is a nonnutritive sweetener. This means it has almost no calories. If you’re trying to lose weight, this aspect may be appealing.
However, to date, research is inconclusive. The impact of nonnutritive sweetener on an individual’s health may depend on the amount that is consumed, as well as the time of day it’s consumed.
If you have diabetes, stevia may help keep your blood sugar levels in check.
One 2010 studyTrusted Source of 19 healthy, lean participants and 12 obese participants found that stevia significantly lowered insulin and glucose levels. It also left study participants satisfied and full after eating, despite the lower calorie intake.
However, one noted limitation in this study is that it took place in a laboratory setting, rather than in a real-life situation in a person’s natural environment.
And according to a 2009 study, stevia leaf powder may help manage cholesterol. Study participants consumed 20 milliliters of stevia extract daily for one month.
The study found stevia lowered total cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, and triglycerides with no negative side effects. It also increased HDL (“good”) cholesterol. It’s unclear if occasional stevia use in lower amounts would have the same impact.
Stevia made with Reb-A is safe to use in moderation during pregnancy. If you’re sensitive to sugar alcohols, choose a brand that doesn’t contain erythritol.
Whole-leaf stevia and crude stevia extract, including stevia you’ve grown at home, are not safe to use if you’re pregnant.
It may seem strange that a highly refined product is considered safer than a natural one. This is a common mystery with herbal products.
In this case, Reb-A has been evaluated for safety during pregnancy and otherwise. Stevia in its natural form hasn’t. Currently, there isn’t enough evidence that whole-leaf stevia or crude stevia extract won’t harm your pregnancy.
There’s some evidence to suggest that stevia may help fight or prevent some types of cancer.
A 2013 study supported these findings. It found that many stevia glycoside derivatives were toxic to specific leukemia, lung, stomach, and breast cancer cell lines.
Stevia may be used in place of table sugar in your favorite foods and beverages. A pinch of stevia powder is equal to about one teaspoon of table sugar.
Tasty ways to use stevia include:
- in coffee or tea
- in homemade lemonade
- sprinkled on hot or cold cereal
- in a smoothie
- sprinkled on unsweetened yogurt
Some stevia brands, such as Stevia in the Raw, can replace table sugar teaspoon for teaspoon (as in sweetened beverages and sauces), unless you’re using it in baked goods.
You can bake with stevia, although it may give cakes and cookies a licorice aftertaste. Stevia in the Raw recommends replacing half the total amount of sugar in your recipe with their product.
Other brands aren’t made specifically for baking, so you’ll need to use less. You should add extra liquid or a bulking ingredient such as applesauce or mashed bananas to your recipe to make up for the lost sugar. It may take some trial and error to get the texture and level of sweetness you like.
Stevia products made with Reb-A are considered safe, even for people who are pregnant or who have diabetes. These products rarely cause side effects. However, more research needs to be done to provide conclusive evidence on weight management, diabetes and other health issues.
Remember that stevia is much sweeter than table sugar, so you won’t need to use as much.
Whole-leaf stevia isn’t approved for commercial use, but you can still grow it for home use. Despite a lack of research, many people claim whole-leaf stevia is a safe alternative to its highly refined counterpart or table sugar.
While adding a raw stevia leaf to a cup of tea now and then is unlikely to cause harm, you shouldn’t use it if you’re pregnant.
Until research determines whether whole-leaf stevia is safe for everyone, get your doctor’s approval before using it regularly, especially if you have a serious medical condition such as diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure.